̲Ͳ  '   Ͳ-ϲ̲ò ˲ N 39  01.12.99 . vd991201 vn39         1  1999 . N 39          3.3.6.039-99    ó㳺     '             . ó㳺  ʳ ,       , ,      . ³    . ³  ³,       . ³  ³,           ,     , ,    . ,   ,       ,      20%  㳺 .     ,          ,   .   ,    .        (     )        . ϳ      ( )     . ³     ,    ,      . ³ (V) ʳ ,     (  ) ,     . ³ (a) ʳ ,     (  ) ,     .   (1-n) ij       (ni),       (V, a).        (K i)    ,       i-  .         (L.)    (V, a),     Ki.       ""      (L..) ,    (L)  ,        䳿   8 . 1.     1.1.        ,         ,     ,    . 1.2.   : -   ; -  㳺   ; - ,      ; -      ; -   . 1.3.    '   , , , ', , ,       ; , ,  ,     ,   ;           ;        . 1.4.        - : ,  ,  , ,    .,         , ,   ,    ,  . 1.5.  ()          . 1.6.         :          ,   ,     N 3041-84,      N 3044-84,           N 3911-85,          N 4013-85,        N 2946-83,         (1987). 2.    2.1.           .      ,    ,    .            ,     , ,    . ( - ,  ). 2.2.          :  1 -  ,  䳺         ,       ,    (     ).     , ,    ,    (   );   (   , , ,   .); ,  -  .  2 - - ,  䳺           ,         ,     .   -  , ,  (   ),    ,      (),  ,   ,  , ,   .  3 -  ,  䳺            ,     .     , ,   -, - ,  ,  ,   ,    ,    ,  ,   ,     (   ),    ( ),       .      䳿    : )       ; )    , , ,     ,    ; )    ,  , ,  ,  , ,  ,         . 2.3.        ,   : -      ,     ; -     (,  )  ,  . 2.4.   䳿          (X 3, Y 3, Z 3):     (   )  -  Z 3,   ( - )  -  X 3,    ( - )  -  Y 3.   䳿          (X , Y , Z ):     X ,        (,  ,  ,      .),     Z  (   )   Y ,       X   Z .       1   2. 2.5.         : - ,           2  ( 6 )   ; - ,            2  (6   )   . 2.5.1.    : - ,      ; - ,        ,   ,      ,   1 ; - ,         (, ),     1 ,    䳿   5,6 . 3.   ,  ,    㳺  3.1. ó㳺  ,  䳺     ,     : -  ()   ; -      ,  ; -  . 3.2.  䳿      ,  ,     (V)   (a)             : 8,0; 16,0; 31,5; 63,0; 125,0; 250,0; 500,0; 1000,0  -   ;  1,0; 2,0; 4,0; 8,0; 16,0; 31,5; 63,0     1/3   0,8; 1,0; 1,25; 1,6; 2,0; 2,5; 3,15; 4,0; 5,0; 6,3; 8,0; 10,0; 12,5; 16,0; 20,0; 25,0; 31,5; 40,0; 50,0; 63,0; 80,0  -   . 3.2.1.    (L v)     : V Lv = 20 Lg -------- (1) Vo  V -    , /; V o -   ,   5  10 -8 / (    ).            /    3. 3.2.2.    (L a)     : a La = 20 Lg ----------- (2) ao  a -    , / 2; a  -   ,   3  10 -4 / (    ).            / 2    4. 3.3.              L   ,      5. 3.4. ,  ,             (U),     (L),        . 3.4.1.        : U = .  E (Ui  Ki)2 (3) ni+1  U i -       i-  ; n -    (1/3  1/1 )   ,  ; K i -    i-              ( 6  7).         8. 3.4.2.          ,       9. 3.5.  䳿   ( ) ,  ,    (  ,  ),              䳿  (X, Y, Z)  : t  = f U2(t)dt (4) o  L .. = L  + 10 Lg (t/t ) (5)  U (t) -          t,  -2   -1; t -  䳿 , ; t  -  , .               䳿      . 10.1 ( 10). 3.6.  䳿        120  160 , ,  ,       (),      ( 4.) 4.     4.1.             . 4.2.         (  )     . г       1 . 4.3.        .         ,        . 4.4.         ().                  1 .            .                3 . 4.5. ʳ      3.          ,      3  ( 1,5 ),    .         '    "K"      +-3     0,95,       "K"     (. 1).  1 ------------------------------------------------------------------ |   | г    | K | |  |   () | | |--------------------+-----------------------------+-------------| | 5 | 5 | 1,7 | |--------------------+-----------------------------+-------------| | 6 | 6 - 7 | 2,1 | |--------------------+-----------------------------+-------------| | 7 | 8 | 2,5 | |--------------------+-----------------------------+-------------| | 8 | 9 | 2,9 | |--------------------+-----------------------------+-------------| | 9 | 10 | 3,3 | ------------------------------------------------------------------      ,  "K" ,    "K"     . 4.6.             5 . 4.7.       3  ( 1,5 ),     .      3  (   1,5 ),         . 4.8.   . 4.8.1.         ,  . 4.8.2. ³   ,      5   (     ).             ,   .        ,      ,        50  25  08   .       10%   (  ),    - 65 . 4.8.3.            (X , Y , Z )   .               6  ( 2 )  ,                .      .        1 . 4.8.4.                  10          .             .        3        5 . 4.9.   . 4.9.1.                : -  -  ,  ; -   ,   -  ,  .                  ,       (   15 .   ). 4.9.2.     (X 3, Y 3, Z 3)          ,     1,      +-20 . 4.9.3.            (. 1).    . (  ). . 1.             ,  . 1 -      4.9.4.        '          200 +-50    4 .          .           . 4.9.5.            3        5.         5           30 .         .                1 .                  ,     2.  2        ---------------------------------------------------------------- |  ,  |   | ʳ  | | |  () | | |-------------------+---------------------+--------------------| |0,8  5,0 | 5 | 6 | |-------------------+---------------------+--------------------| | 0,6  20,0 | 3 | 5 | |-------------------+---------------------+--------------------| | 25,0  80,0 | 2 | 5 | ---------------------------------------------------------------- .           . 5.      ,   5.1.         ( )   䳿  8     3.  3      ------------------------------------------------------------------ | |     X, Y, Z | |   |  | | ,  |-------------------------------------------| | |  |  | | |---------------------+---------------------| | | /  10 |  | /2 |  | | | -2 | | | | |--------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------| | 8 | 2.,8 | 115 | 1,4 | 73 | |--------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------| | 16 | 1,4 | 109 | 1,4 | 73 | |--------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------| | 31,5 | 1,4 | 109 | 2,7 | 79 | |--------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------| | 63 | 1,4 | 109 | 5,4 | 85 | |--------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------| | 125 | 1,4 | 109 | 10,7 | 91 | |--------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------| | 250 | 1,4 | 109 | 21,3 | 97 | |--------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------| | 500 | 1,4 | 109 | 42,5 | 103 | |--------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------| | 1000 | 1,4 | 109 | 85,0 | 109 | |--------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------| |, | 2,0 | 112 | 2,0 | 76 | | | | | | | |  | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------------ 5.2.    7              8-  .  6-        113  (2,3  10 -2 /),   - 78  (2,3 / 2 ). 5.3.    䳿  ,        12 ,  . 5.4.          4.  4       ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | ij |    ,  | | |-----------------------------------------------------------------| || 120 | 125 | 130 | 135 | 140 | 145 | 150| 155|160| | ,|-----------------------------------------------------------------| |  |    | |-----------+-----------------------------------------------------------------| | 1 - 30* | 160000**| 160000**| 50000 | 16000 | 5000 | 1600| 500| 160| 50| |-----------+---------+---------+--------+--------+-------+-----+----+----+---| | |(20000**)|(20000**)|(6250) |(2000) |(625) |(200)|(62)|(20)|(6)| |-----------+---------+---------+--------+--------+-------+-----+----+----+---| |31 - 1000* | 160000**| 50000** | 16000 | 5000 | 1600 | 500 | 160| 50 | - | |-----------+---------+---------+--------+--------+-------+-----+----+----+---| | |(20000**)| (6250) |(2000) | (625) |(200) | (62)|(20)| (6)| - | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ____________ * ³  1 - 30      , 31 - 1000  -   . **        8-     5,6 .   -     1 . 5.4.1.              11. 5.5.           䳿  8     5, 6, 7, 8, 9.  5       1 () ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- |- |     | | |--------------------------------------------------------| | , | /2 |  | | |----------------------------+---------------------------| | |  1/3 . |  1/1 . |  1/3 . |  1/1 . | | |--------------+-------------+-------------+-------------| | | Z3 |X3, Y3| Z3 |Z0, Y0| Z3 |X3, Y3| Z3 |X3, Y0| |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 0,8 | 0,71 | 0,224| | | 67 | 57 | | | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 1,0 | 0,63 | 0,224|1,12 | 0,4 | 66 | 57 | 71 | 62 | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 1,25 | 0,56 | 0,224| | | 65 | 57 | | | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 1,6 | 0,50 | 0,224| | | 64 | 57 | | | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 2,0 | 0,45 | 0,224| 0,8 | 0,4 | 63 | 57 | 68 | 62 | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 2,5 | 0,40 | 0,280| | | 62 | 59 | | | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 3,15 |0,355 | 0,355| | | 61 | 61 | | | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 4,0 |0,315 | 0,450|0,56 | 0,8 | 60 | 63 | 65 | 68 | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 5,0 |0,315 | 0,56 | | | 60 | 65 | | | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 6,3 |0,315 | 0,710| | | 60 | 67 | | | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 8,0 |0,315 | 0,900|0,56 | 1,6 | 60 | 69 | 65 | 74 | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 10,0 | 0,40 | 1,12 | | | 62 | 71 | | | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 12,5 | 0,50 | 1,40 | | | 64 | 73 | | | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 16,0 | 0,63 | 1,80 |1,12 | 3,15 | 66 | 75 | 71 | 80 | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 20,0 | 0,80 | 2,24 | | | 68 | 77 | | | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 25,0 | 1,0 | 2,80 | | | 70 | 79 | | | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 31,5 | 1,25 | 3,55 |2,24 | 6,3 | 72 | 81 | 77 | 86 | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 40,0 | 1,60 | 4,50 | | | 74 | 83 | | | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 50,0 | 2,0 | 5,60 | | | 76 | 85 | | | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 63,0 | 2,5 | 7,10 |4,50 | 12,5 | 78 | 87 | 83 | 92 | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | 80,0 | 3,15 | 9,00 | | | 80 | 89 | | | |-----------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| |, | | |0,56 | 0,4 | | | 65 | 62 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------   5 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ |- |     | | |--------------------------------------------------------------| | ,| /2  10-2  | | |--------------------------------------------------------------| | |  1/3 . |  1/1 . |  1/3 . |  1/1 . | | |----------------+---------------+---------------+-------------| | | Z3 |X3, Y3 | Z3 |X3, Y3 | Z3 |X3, Y3 | Z3 |X3, Y3| |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 0,8 |14,00 | 4,5 | | | 129 | 119 | | | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 1,0 |10,00 | 3,5 |20,0 | 6,3 | 126 | 117 | 132 | 122 | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 1,25 | 7,10 | 2,8 | | | 123 | 115 | | | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 1,6 | 5,0 | 2,2 | | | 120 | 113 | | | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 2,0 | 3,5 | 1,8 | 7,1 | 3,5 | 117 | 111 | 123 | 117 | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 2,5 | 2,5 | 1,8 | | | 114 | 111 | | | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 3,15 | 1,8 | 1,8 | | | 111 | 111 | | | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 4,0 | 1,25 | 1,8 | 2,5 | 3,2 | 108 | 111 | 114 | 116 | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 5,0 | 1,00 | 1,8 | | | 106 | 111 | | | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 6,3 | 0,80 | 1,8 | | | 104 | 111 | | | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 8,0 | 0,63 | 1,8 | 1,3 | 3,2 | 102 | 111 | 108 | 116 | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 10,0 | 0,63 | 1,8 | | | 102 | 111 | | | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 12,5 | 0,63 | 1,8 | | | 102 | 111 | | | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 16,0 | 0,63 | 1,8 | 1,1 | 3,2 | 102 | 111 | 107 | 116 | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 20,0 | 0,63 | 1,8 | | | 102 | 111 | | | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 25,0 | 0,63 | 1,8 | | | 102 | 111 | | | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 31,5 | 0,63 | 1,8 | 1,1 | 3,2 | 102 | 111 | 107 | 116 | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 40,0 | 0,63 | 1,8 | | | 102 | 111 | | | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 50,0 | 0,63 | 1,8 | | | 102 | 111 | | | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 63,0 | 0,63 | 1,8 | 1,1 | 3,2 | 102 | 111 | 107 | 116 | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | 80.0 | 0,63 | 1,8 | | | 102 | 111 | | | |-------------+-------+--------+------+--------+------+--------+------+------| | ,| | | 1,1 | 3,2 | | | 107 | 116 | | | | | | | | | | | |  | | | | | | | | | |  | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------  6       2 (-) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | |      X3, Y3, Z3 | |  ,  | | | |-------------------------------------------------------| | |  |  | | |----------------------------+--------------------------| | | /2 |  | /  10-2 |  | | |--------------+-------------+-------------+------------| | | 1/3 | 1/1 | 1/3 | 1/1 | 1/3 | 1/1 | 1/3 | 1/1 | | | . |. |. |. |. |. |. |. | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 1,6 | 0,25 | | 58 | | 2,5 | | 114 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 2,0 |0,224 | 0,4 | 57 | 62 | 1,8 | 3,5 | 111 | 117 | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 2,5 | 0,20 | | 56 | |1,25 | | 108 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 3,15 | 0,18 | | 55 | | 0,9 | | 105 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 4,0 | 0,16 |0,28 | 54 | 59 |0,63 | 1,3 | 102 | 108 | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 5,0 | 0,16 | | 54 | |0,50 | | 100 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 6,3 | 0,16 | | 54 | |0,40 | | 98 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 8,0 | 0,16 |0,28 | 54 | 59 |0,32 |0,63 | 96 | 102 | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 10,0 | 0,20 | | 56 | |0,32 | | 96 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 12,5 | 0,25 | | 58 | |0,32 | | 96 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 16,0 |0,315 |0,56 | 60 | 65 |0,32 |0,56 | 96 | 101 | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 20,0 | 0,40 | | 62 | |0,32 | | 96 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 25,0 | 0,50 | | 64 | |0,32 | | 96 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 31,5 | 0,63 |1,12 | 66 | 71 |0,32 |0,56 | 96 | 101 | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 40,0 | 0,80 | | 68 | |0,32 | | 96 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 50,0 | 1,00 | | 70 | |0,32 | | 96 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 63,0 | 1,15 |2,25 | 72 | 77 |0,32 |0,56 | 96 | 101 | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 80,0 | 1,60 | | 74 | |0,32 | | 96 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | , | |0,28 | | 59 | |0,56 | | 101 | |  | | | | | | | | | |   | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------  7       3 (  "") ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | |      X3, Y3, Z3 | |  ,  | | | |-------------------------------------------------------| | |  |  | | |----------------------------+--------------------------| | | /2 |  | /  10-2 |  | | |--------------+-------------+-------------+------------| | | 1/3 | 1/1 | 1/3 | 1/1 | 1/3 | 1/1 | 1/3 | 1/1 | | | . |. |. |. |. |. |. |. | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 1,6 | 0,09 | | 49 | | 0,9 | | 105 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 2,0 | 0,08 |0,14 | 48 | 53 |0,63 | 1,3 | 102 | 108 | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 2,5 |0,071 | | 47 | |0,45 | | 99 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 3,15 |0,063 | | 46 | |0,32 | | 96 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 4,0 |0,056 | 0,1 | 45 | 50 |0,22 |0,45 | 93 | 99 | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 5,0 |0,056 | | 45 | |0,18 | | 91 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 6,3 |0,056 | | 45 | |0,14 | | 89 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 8,0 |0,056 | 0,1 | 45 | 50 |0,11 |0,22 | 87 | 93 | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 10,0 |0,071 | | 47 | |0,11 | | 87 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 12,5 | 0,09 | | 49 | |0,11 | | 87 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 16,0 |0,112 |0,20 | 51 | 56 |0,11 |0,20 | 87 | 92 | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 20,0 |0,140 | | 53 | |0,11 | | 87 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 25,0 | 0,18 | | 55 | |0,11 | | 87 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 31,5 |0,224 |0,40 | 57 | 62 |0,11 |0,20 | 87 | 92 | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 40,0 |0,280 | | 59 | |0,11 | | 87 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 50,0 |0,355 | | 61 | |0,11 | | 87 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 63,0 | 0,45 |0,80 | 63 | 68 |0,11 |0,20 | 87 | 92 | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 80,0 | 0,56 | | 65 | |0,11 | | 87 | | |--------------------+-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | , | | 0,1 | | 50 | | 0,2 | | 92 | |  | | | | | | | | | |   | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------  8       3 (  "") ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- |- |      X3, Y3, Z3 | | | | | ,|-------------------------------------------------------------| | |  |  | | |------------------------------+------------------------------| | | /2 |  | /  10-2 |  | | |----------------+-------------+----------------+-------------| | | 1/3 | 1/1 | 1/3 | 1/1 | 1/3 | 1/1 | 1/3 | 1/1 | | | . | . |. |. | . | . |. |. | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 1,6 |0,0355 | | 41 | | 0,35 | | 97 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 2,0 |0,0315 |0,056 | 40 | 45 | 0,25 | 0,50 | 94 | 100 | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 2,5 | 0,028 | | 39 | | 0,18 | | 91 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 3,15 | 0,025 | | 38 | | 0,13 | | 88 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 4,0 |0,0224 | 0,04 | 37 | 42 | 0,089 | 0,18 | 85 | 91 | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 5,0 |0,0224 | | 37 | | 0,072 | | 83 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 6,3 |0,0224 | | 37 | | 0,056 | | 81 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 8,0 |0,0224 | 0,04 | 37 | 42 |0,0445 |0,089 | 79 | 85 | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 10,0 | 0,028 | | 39 | |0,0445 | | 79 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 12,5 |0,0355 | | 43 | |0,0445 | | 79 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 16,0 | 0,045 | 0,08 | 43 | 48 |0,0445 |0,079 | 79 | 84 | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 20,0 | 0,056 | | 45 | |0,0445 | | 79 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 25,0 | 0,071 | | 47 | |0,0445 | | 79 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 31,5 | 0,09 | 0,16 | 49 | 54 |0,0445 |0,079 | 79 | 84 | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 40,0 | 0,112 | | 51 | |0,0445 | | 79 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 50,0 | 0,14 | | 53 | |0,0445 | | 79 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 63,0 | 0,18 | 0,32 | 55 | 60 |0,0445 |0,079 | 79 | 84 | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 80,0 | 0,224 | | 57 | |0,0445 | | 79 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| |, | | 0,04 | | 42 | |0,079 | | 84 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | -----------------------------------------------------------------------------  9       3 (  "") ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- |- |      X3, Y3, Z3 | | | | | ,|-------------------------------------------------------------| | |  |  | | |------------------------------+------------------------------| | | /2 |  | /  10-2 |  | | |----------------+-------------+----------------+-------------| | | 1/3 | 1/1 | 1/3 | 1/1 | 1/3 | 1/1 | 1/3 | 1/1 | | | . | . |. |. | . | . |. |. | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 1,6 |0,0125 | | 32 | | 0,13 | | 88 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 2,0 |0,0112 | 0,02 | 31 | 36 | 0,089 | 0,18 | 85 | 91 | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 2,5 | 0,01 | | 30 | | 0,063 | | 82 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 3,15 | 0,009 | | 29 | |0,0445 | | 79 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 4,0 | 0,008 |0,014 | 28 | 33 | 0,032 |0,063 | 76 | 82 | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 5,0 | 0,008 | | 28 | | 0,025 | | 74 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 6,3 | 0,008 | | 28 | | 0,02 | | 72 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 8,0 | 0,008 |0,014 | 28 | 33 | 0,016 |0,032 | 70 | 76 | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 10,0 | 0,01 | | 30 | | 0,016 | | 70 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 12,5 |0,0125 | | 32 | | 0,016 | | 70 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 16,0 | 0,016 |0,028 | 34 | 39 | 0,016 |0,028 | 70 | 75 | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 20,0 |0,0196 | | 36 | | 0,016 | | 70 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 25,0 | 0,025 | | 38 | | 0,016 | | 70 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 31,5 |0,0315 |0,056 | 40 | 45 | 0,016 |0,028 | 70 | 75 | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 40,0 | 0,04 | | 42 | | 0,016 | | 70 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 50,0 | 0,05 | | 44 | | 0,016 | | 70 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 63,0 | 0,063 |0,112 | 46 | 51 | 0,016 |0,028 | 70 | 75 | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| | 80,0 | 0,08 | | 48 | | 0,016 | | 70 | | |-------------+--------+-------+------+------+--------+-------+------+------| |, | |0,014 | | 33 | |0,028 | | 75 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 6.      ,   6.1.  ,  ,  ,       ,     20 %       . 6.2.       ,     . 6.3.     ,  ,      ,        ,   ,     . 6.4.  ,    ,          - ,    . 6.4.1.   ,  , ,  ,     ,      100 . 6.4.2. ,    60  (   , ,  , , )    . 6.4.3.  ,         ,       100     - 200 . 6.4.4.   , ,       ,        . ̳              5  10 / 2  .              0,5 /  . 6.4.5.           ,          . 6.5.  ,  ,      ,    ,  . 6.6.     ,  , . 6.7.   ,  ,      ,     ,  ,          . 6.8.    ,  ,              ,      ,    ,  ,   .        0,1 .       ,        12  2;       150     . 6.9.   ,     䳿  ,   ,       ,   . 7. 6.10.    (,   .)            12.4.024. ".   "   12.4.002 ".      .   ". 7.       7.1.                ,           12 . 7.2.      ,          (, , ). 7.3.     䳿  . 7.3.1.            10     䳿   8-  .  10    䳿           --------------------------------------------------------------------------- |  |  |  |  | |  |   䳿 |  |   䳿 | | |  ,| |  ,| | ,  | . | ,  | . | |-----------------+------------------+-----------------+------------------| | 1 | 384 | 7 | 95 | |-----------------+------------------+-----------------+------------------| | 2 | 302 | 8 | 76 | |-----------------+------------------+-----------------+------------------| | 3 | 240 | 9 | 60 | |-----------------+------------------+-----------------+------------------| | 4 | 191 | 10 | 48 | |-----------------+------------------+-----------------+------------------| | 5 | 151 | 11 | 38 | |-----------------+------------------+-----------------+------------------| | 6 | 120 | 12 | 30 | --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7.3.2.     䳿         ,            2   ( - 20   1 - 2    ,  -  30   2    )        40 . 7.3.3.     䳿         ,          ,   .       ,             . 7.3.4.                  䳿          11.  11       䳿       -------------------------------------------------------------------- ||      | |  | 䳿 ,      | ||       | | ,  |    | | |------------------------------------------------------| | | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | |-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 1 | 50 | 50 | 50 | 50 | 50 | 50 | 50 | 50 | |-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 2 | 50 | 50 | 50 | 50 | 50 | 50 | 49 | 49 | |-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 3 | 50 | 50 | 50 | 50 | 50 | 46 | 42 | 40 | |-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 4 | 50 | 50 | 50 | 50 | 44 | 40 | 37 | 34 | |-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 5 | 50 | 50 | 50 | 43 | 38 | 34 | 31 | 30 | |-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 6 | 50 | 50 | 45 | 37 | 33 | 30 | 27 | 26 | |-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 7 | 50 | 50 | 38 | 32 | 28 | 25 | 24 | 22 | |-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 8 | 50 | 42 | 32 | 27 | 24 | 22 | 20 | 19 | |-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 9 | 50 | 36 | 27 | 23 | 20 | 19 | 18 | 17 | |-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 10 | 50 | 30 | 23 | 20 | 18 | 16 | 15 | 14 | |-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 11 | 43 | 25 | 20 | 17 | 15 | 14 | 13 | 12 | |-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----| | 12 | 36 | 21 | 17 | 14 | 13 | 12 | 11 | 10 | -------------------------------------------------------------------- (        12). 7.3.5.      䳿   10 - 15 .        30 . 7.3.6.      ,         . 7.3.7.        䳿          13  14. 7.4.        䳿  . 7.4.1.    ,    ,    5. 7.4.2.             ( 12)  ,          䳺    .  12    ------------------------------------------------------------------ |г | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | |, | | | | | | | | | | | |----------+----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+----+----| |³|1,0 |1,3 |1,6 |2,0 |2,5 |3,2 |4,0 |5,0 |6,3 |8,0 | |, | | | | | | | | | | | |----------+----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+----+----| |г | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | |, | | | | | | | | | | | |----------+----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+----+----| |³| 10 | 13 | 16 | 20 | 25 | 32 | 40 | 50 | 63 | 80 | |, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |----------+----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+----+----| |г | 20 | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | |, | | | | | | | | | | | |----------+----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+----+----| |³|100 | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | |, | | | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------------      15. 8.  -  -          8.1.  -  : -                ; -         , ,     ,     , ,   .  ,  ; -     ()    ,    (               12.1.012-90 ".  .  "),    ,    ,   ; -         '    ; -      ,  - ; -          ,  ,     .,      ; -     ,  ,        (  , , ,    ..); -         ; -       ,     . 8.2.  -  : -    ; -  ; - ; -   ,     ; -    . 8.3.         18 ,     ,   ,              . 8.4.  ,        ,          N 555  29.09.89 "          "    N 45  31.03.94 . "          ". 8.5.         :  ( C, B1   )             -  -    - ,  ,   ,    (  ). 8.6.      ,        ,      ,     ,   '               . 8.7.                   12.4.002   12.4.024. 9.   9.1.     ,   ,     . 9.2.           . 9.3.       ,            () . 9.4.         ,     3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 9.5.    '  ,           . 9.6.     : -  -       -   ; - ; -         .  1     䳿      . (  ).  2     䳿      . (  ).  3      ()     / ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- || ,  | |  |---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| | | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 50 |1,6  10 |1,8  10 |2,0  10 |2,2  10 |2,2  10 |2,8  10 |3,2  10 |3,5  10 |4,0  10 |4,5  10 | | | -5 | -5 | -5 | -5 | -5 | -5 | -5 | -5 | -5 | -5 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 60 |5,0  10 |5,6  10 |6,3  10 |7,1  10 |7,9  10 |8,9  10 |1,0  10 |1,3  10 |1,3  10 |1,3  10 | | | -5 | -5 | -5 | -5 | -5 | -5 | -4 | -4 | -4 | -4 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 70 |1,6  10 |1,8  10 |2,0  10 |2,2  10 |2,5  10 |2,8  10 |3,2  10 |3,5  10 |4,0  10 |4,5  10 | | | -4 | -4 | -4 | -4 | -4 | -4 | -4 | -4 | -4 | -4 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 80 |5,0  10 |5,6  10 |6,3  10 |7,1  10 |7,9  10 |8,9  10 |1,0  10 |1,1  10 |1,3  10 |1,4  10 | | | -4 | -4 | -4 | -4 | -4 | -4 | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 90 |1,6  10 |1,8  10 |2,0  10 |2,2  10 |2,5  10 |2,8  10 |3,2  10 |3,5  10 |4,0  10 |4,5  10 | | | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 100 |5,0  10 |5,6  10 |6,3  10 |7,1  10 |7,9  10 |8,9  10 |1,0  10 |1,3  10 |1,3  10 |1,3  10 | | | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 110 |1,6  10 |1,8  10 |2,0  10 |2,2  10 |2,5  10 |2,8  10 |3,2  10 |3,5  10 |4,0  10 |4,5  10 | | | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 120 |5,0  10 |5,6  10 |6,3  10 |7,1  10 |7,9  10 |8,9  10 |1,0  10 |1,1  10 |1,3  10 |1,4  10 | | | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 130 |1,6  10 |1,8  10 |2,0  10 |2,2  10 |2,5  10 |2,8  10 |3,2  10 |3,5  10 |4,0  10 |4,5  10 | | | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 140 |5,0  10 |5,6  10 |6,3  10 |7,1  10 |7,9  10 |8,9  10 |1,0  10 |1,1  10 |1,3  10 |1,4  10 | | | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  4      ()     / 2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- || ,  | |  |---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| | | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 20 |3,0  10 |3,4  10 |3,8  10 |4,2  10 |4,8  10 |5,3  10 |6,0  10 |6,7  10 |7,6  10 |8,5  10 | | | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | -3 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 30 |9,5  10 |1,1  10 |1,2  10 |1,3  10 |1,4  10 |1,7  10 |1,9  10 |2,2  10 |2,4  10 |2,7  10 | | | -3 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 40 |3,0  10 |3,4  10 |3,8  10 |4,2  10 |4,8  10 |5,3  10 |6,0  10 |6,7  10 |7,6  10 |8,5  10 | | | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | -2 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 50 |9,5  10 |1,1  10 |1,2  10 |1,3  10 |1,5  10 |1,7  10 |1,9  10 |2,1  10 |2,4  10 |2,7  10 | | | -2 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 60 |3,0  10 |3,4  10 |3,8  10 |4,2  10 |4,8  10 |5,3  10 |6,0  10 |6,7  10 |7,6  10 |8,5  10 | | | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | -1 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 70 |9,5  10 | 1,1 | 1,2 | 1,3 | 1,5 | 1,7 | 1,9 | 2,1 | 2,4 | 2,7 | | | -1 | | | | | | | | | | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 80 | 3,0 | 3,4 | 3,8 | 4,2 | 4,8 | 5,3 | 6,0 | 6,7 | 7,6 | 8,5 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 90 | 9,5 | 1,1  | 1,2  | 1,3  | 1,5  | 1,7  | 1,9  | 2,1  | 2,4  | 2,7  | | | | 10 | 10 | 10 | 10 | 10 | 10 | 10 | 10 | 10 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 100 | 3,0  | 3,4  | 3,8  | 4,2  | 4,8  | 5,3  | 6,0  | 6,7  | 7,6  | 8,5  | | | 10 | 10 | 10 | 10 | 10 | 10 | 10 | 10 | 10 | 10 | |-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------| | 110 | 9,5  |1,1  10 |1,2  10 |1,3  10 |1,5  10 |1,7  10 |1,9  10 |2,1  10 |2,4  10 |2,7  10 | | | 10 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  5        1.     ,    ,   . 5.1  .  .5.1 ------------------------------------------------------------------- |г | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |, | | | | | | | | | | | | |----------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----| | |3,0 |2,5 |2,0 |1,8 |1,5 |1,2 |1,0 |0,8 |0,6 |0,5 |0,4 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |,L | | | | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------------- -     ; -    10 lgn  n -  , 10 lgn    . 5.2  . 5.2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | n | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | |-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| |10 lgn | 0 | 3,0 | 4,8 | 6,0 | 6,9 | 7,8 | 8,4 | 9,0 | 9,5 |10,0 | |-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | n | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | |-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| |10 lgn |10,4 |10,8 |11,1 |11,5 |11,8 |12,0 |12,3 |12,5 |12,8 |13,0 | |-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | n | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | |-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| |10 lgn |13,2 |13,4 |13,6 |13,8 |14,0 |14,1 |14,3 |14,5 |14,6 |14,8 | |-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| | n | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | |-------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------| |10 lgn |14,9 |15,0 |15,2 |15,3 |15,4 |15,5 |15,8 |15,8 |15,9 |16,0 | -------------------------------------------------------------------------------     6     . 2. : -  () 108 112 109 | | | ----------- |  3 |  L 1,8 |  113,8 | ---------------  4,8  l 1,2  115,0 n - 3, 10lg 3 - 4,8   115 - 4,8 - 110,2 . = 110 ()  6    (K i, L ki, )    ------------------------------------------------------------------ ||    | |  ,  |--------------------------------------------| | |   |  | | |--------------------------------------------| | | Z, X, Y | | |--------------------------------------------| | | Ki | Lki | Ki | Lki | |-------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+--------| | 8 | 1,0 | 0 | 0,5 | -6 | |-------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+--------| | 16 | 1,0 | 0 | 1,0 | 0 | |-------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+--------| | 31,5 | 0,5 | -6 | 1,0 | 0 | |-------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+--------| | 63 | 0,25 | -12 | 1,0 | 0 | |-------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+--------| | 125 | 0,125 | -18 | 1,0 | 0 | |-------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+--------| | 250 | 0,063 | -24 | 1,0 | 0 | |-------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+--------| | 500 | 0,0315 | -30 | 1,0 | 0 | |-------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+--------| | 1000 | 0,016 | -36 | 1,0 | 0 | ------------------------------------------------------------------  7  .7.1       , L ki, () --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |- |    | | | | | ,|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| | |   |   | | |--------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------| | |  1/3  |  1/1  |  1/3  |  1/1  | | |----------------------------+---------------------------+-------------------------+------------------------| | | Z3 | X3 , Y3 | Z3 | X3 , Y3 | Z3 | X3 , Y3 | Z3 | X3 , Y3 | | |-------------+--------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-----------+-------------+----------| | | Ki |Lki | Ki |Lki | Ki |Lki | Ki |Lki | Ki |Lki | Ki |Lki | Ki |Lki | Ki |Lki | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 0,8 | 0,45 | -7 | 1,0 | 0 | | | | |0,045 |-27 | 0,4 |-8 | | | | | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 1,0 | 0,5 | -6 | 1,0 | 0 | 0,5 | -6 | 1,0 | 0 |0,063 |-24 | 0,5 |-6 |0,045 |-25 |0,5 |-6 | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 1,25 | 0,56 | -5 | 1,0 | 0 | | | | | 0,09 |-21 |0,63 |-4 | | | | | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 1,6 | 0,63 | -4 | 1,0 | 0 | | | | |0,125 |-18 | 0,8 |-2 | | | | | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 2,0 | 0,71 | -3 | 1,0 | 0 | 0,71 | -3 | 1,0 | 0 |0,188 |-15 |1,00 | 0 | 0,16 |-16 |0,9 |-1 | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 2,5 | 0,8 | -2 | 0,6 | -2 | | | | | 0,25 |-12 | 1,0 | 0 | | | | | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 3,15 | 0,9 | -1 | 0,63 | -4 | | | | | 0,35 | -9 | 1,0 | 0 | | | | | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 4,0 | 1,0 | 0 | 0,5 | -6 | 1,0 | 0 | 0,5 | -6 | 0,5 | -6 | 1,0 | 0 | 0,45 | -7 |1,0 | 0 | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 5,0 | 1,0 | 0 | 0,4 | -8 | | | | | 0,63 | -4 | 1,0 | 0 | | | | | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 6,3 | 1,0 | 0 | 0,315 |-10 | | | | | 0,8 | -2 | 1,0 | 0 | | | | | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 8,0 | 1,0 | 0 | 0,25 |-12 | 1,0 | 0 | 0,25 | 12 | 1,0 | 0 | 1,0 | 0 | 0,9 | -1 |1,0 | 0 | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 10,0 | 0,8 | -2 | 0,2 |-14 | | | | | 1,0 | 0 | 1,0 | 0 | | | | | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 12,5 | 0.63 | -4 | 0,016 |-16 | | | | | 1,0 | 0 | 1,0 | 0 | | | | | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 16.0 | 0,53 | -6 | 0,125 |-18 | 0,5 | -6 |0,125 |-18 | 1,0 | 0 | 1,0 | 0 | 1,0 | 0 |1,0 | 0 | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 20,0 | 0,40 | -8 | 0,1 |-20 | | | | | 1,0 | 0 | 1,0 | 0 | | | | | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 25,0 |0,135 |-10 | 0,08 |-22 | | | | | 1,0 | 0 | 1,0 | 0 | | | | | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 31,5 | 0,25 |-12 | 0,063 |-24 | 0,25 |-12 |0,063 |-24 | 1,0 | 0 | 1,0 | 0 | 1,0 | 0 |1,0 | 0 | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 40,0 | 0,2 |-14 | 0,05 |-26 | | | | | 1,0 | 0 | 1,0 | 0 | | | | | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 50,0 | 0,16 |-16 | 0,04 |-28 | | | | | 1,0 | 0 | 1,0 | 0 | | | | | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 63,0 |0,125 |-18 |0,0315 |-30 |0,125 |-18 |0,315 |-30 | 1,0 | 0 | 1,0 | 0 | 1,0 | 0 |1,0 | 0 | |-------------+-------+-----+--------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+------+----+-------+-----+-----+----| | 80,0 | 0,1 |-20 | 0,025 |-32 | | | | | 1,0 | 0 | 1,0 | 0 | | | | | --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .      2  3      X 3, Y 3     Z 3.  8      (/) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- |- |  |  | (V1 | E(V1 |  | | |  |  | R1)2 | R1)2 |  | | ,|,|,| | || | |/  10-3, V1 | K1 | | |.  E(V| | | | | | | 1  R1)2 | |-------------+---------------+-------------+------+-------+--------------| | 8 | 1,3 | 0,5 |0,422 | | | |-------------+---------------+-------------+------+-------+--------------| | 16 | 1,8 | 1 | 3,24 | | | |-------------+---------------+-------------+------+-------+--------------| | 31,5 | 5,0 | 1 | 25,0 | | | |-------------+---------------+-------------+------+-------+--------------| | 63 | 3,2 | 1 |10,24 | | | |-------------+---------------+-------------+------+-------+--------------| | 125 | 1,8 | 1 | 3,24 | 44,33 | 6,65  10-2 | |-------------+---------------+-------------+------+-------+--------------| | 250 | 1,1 | 1 | 1,21 | | | |-------------+---------------+-------------+------+-------+--------------| | 500 | 0,7 | 1 | 0,49 | | | |-------------+---------------+-------------+------+-------+--------------| | 1000 | 0,7 | 1 | 0,49 | | | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------  9       () 1.              "K" ( 6  7); -    ; -       . 6.1 ( 6)   L; -     . 2.     :  ------------------------------------------------------------------ | | 8 | 16 |31,5 | 63 |125 |250 |500 |1000| |----------------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+----| | |112 |109 | 112 |110 |110 |106 |103 | 102| |()| | | | | | | | | |----------------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+----| |"K" ( 7) | -6 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | |----------------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+----| | |106 |109 | 112 |110 |110 |106 |103 | 102| |----------------+-----------+------------+-----------+----------| | | 3 | 2 | 4 | 1 | |----------------+-----------+------------+-----------+----------| | L | 1,8 | 2,0 | 1,5 | 2,5 | |----------------+-----------+------------+-----------+----------| | | 110,8 | 114,0 | 111,5 | 105,5 | |----------------+------------------------+----------------------| | | 3,2 | 6,0 | |----------------+------------------------+----------------------| | L | 1,7 | 1,0 | |----------------+------------------------+----------------------| | | 115,7 | 112,5 | |----------------+-----------------------------------------------| | | 3,2 | |----------------+-----------------------------------------------| | L | 1,7 | |----------------+-----------------------------------------------| | | 117,4 | 117 () | ------------------------------------------------------------------  10     1.       9. -    10 lg (t/t ),  t -  䳿   , ; t  -  , .  10 lg (t/t )    . 10.1  . 10.1 ------------------------------------------------------------------ ||| 8 | 7 | 6 | 5 | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 |0,5 | 15 | 5 | |䳿|% | | | | | | | | | |. |. | | | |----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----| | | |100 | 88 | 75 |62 |50 | 38 |25 |12 | 6 | 3 | 1 | |---------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----| |,| 0 |-0,6|-1,2|-2 |-3 |-4,6|-6 |-9 |-12 |-15 |-20 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------------ 2.     : ) -     117 .  䳿   8-   4  L . = 117 + 10 lg (t/t ) = 117 + 10 lg (4/8) = 117 - 3 = 114 () ) -  8-    2-  ,      113 ,  - 115 .      - 2 ,   - 1 . ------------------------------------------------------------------ | |I   | II   | |---------------------+--------------------+---------------------| |L,  | 113 | 115 | |---------------------+--------------------+---------------------| |t,  | 2 | 1 | |---------------------+--------------------+---------------------| |10 lg (t/t),  | -6 | -9 | |---------------------+--------------------+---------------------| |L,  | 107 | 106 | |---------------------+------------------------------------------| | | 1 | |---------------------+------------------------------------------| | t  . .| 2,5 | |6.1 | | |---------------------+------------------------------------------| | | 109,5 . = 110 () | ------------------------------------------------------------------  11             ,   䳺     ,         ,  㳺          -      . 1.  : -        (); -    ; -         ; -     (   ); -      (   ).  . 12.1         3-    ------------------------------------------------------------------ |  |   | |-----------------------------+----------------------------------| | N  | 1 | 2 | 3 | |-----------------------------+---------+-------------+----------| |ϳ  | 135 | 140 | 152 | |,  | | | | |-----------------------------+---------+-------------+----------| |ʳ  () | 920 | 5200 | 320 | |-----------------------------+---------+-------------+----------| |  | 16000 | 5000 | 500 | | | | | | |-----------------------------+---------+-------------+----------| |  | 0,06 | 1,04 | 0,64 | | (  | | | | | ) | | | | |-----------------------------+----------------------------------| |  | 1,74 | | (  | | | ) | | ------------------------------------------------------------------  12        ,       .    ,       6 .   ,        207   .   . 6.4.4       6     䳿     120 .  ,          䳿 .           ,   .      8   ,    . 6.4.4          26 .         26  8 = 208 ().        㳿.      7   ,    . 6.4.4          27 .         27  7 = 189 ().         㳿.  '        8   ,  .            (40 ),   (1-  20 ., 2- -  30 .)     5      . ϳ         :  26  29  5 +  26  14   20 +  26  29  5 +  26  29  5 +  40 +  26  29  5 +  26  14   30 +  26  29  5 +  26  29  5 +  26  29  5   -        ;  -        䳿 ;  -       ;   -  ;  -  .    ().  13       ----------------------------------------------------------------------- | NN| ,   |   | |/| |--------------------------------------| | | | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | |---+--------------------------+------+----------+---------+----------| | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | |---+--------------------------+------+----------+---------+----------| | 1.| , . | | | | | | |--------------------------+------+----------+---------+----------| | |-    | - | | 27 - 35 | 36 - 39 | | | | | | | | | |--------------------------+------+----------+---------+----------| | |-    | - | |0 - | 10 | | | | | | 9 |  | |---+--------------------------+------+----------+---------+----------| | 2.|  ( | 100|101 - 105 | 501 - | 1001  | | | , ) | | | 1000 |  | |---+--------------------------+------+----------+---------+----------| | 3.|,  | |  |  + 5 | + 6 | | | |  | | |  | |---+--------------------------+------+----------+---------+----------| | 4.| ( | |  |  5 | 5,1  | | |, ) |  | | |  | |---+--------------------------+------+----------+---------+----------| | 5.|  | |  |  2,5 | 2,6  | | |(  |  | | |  | | |, ) | | | | | |---+--------------------------+------+----------+---------+----------| | 6.|  |  10| 11 - 12 | 23 - 45 | 46  | | |   | | | |  | | | | | | | | | |(  ) | | | | | | |* | | | | | |---+--------------------------+------+----------+---------+----------| | 7.|  | | | | | | |   | | | | | | |(He)**   | | | | | | |: | | | | | | |--------------------------+------+----------+---------+----------| | |-   |  | 180001 - | 430001 -| 972001 | | | |180000| 430000 | 972000 |  | | |--------------------------+------+----------+---------+----------| | |-   ' ,|  | 612001 - |1296001 -|2664001 | | | |612000| 1296000 | 2664000 |  | |---+--------------------------+------+----------+---------+----------| | 8.| : | | | | | | |--------------------------+------+----------+---------+----------| | |-   |  10| 11 - 25 | 26 - 50 | 51  | | |, %  | | | |  | | |--------------------------+------+----------+---------+----------| | |-    |  50| 51 - 100 | 101 - | 301  | | | | | | 300 |  | ----------------------------------------------------------------------- ___________ * -   :  W = ---- t  t -    A, ; P  l P  Hi A = P  H ( ------ + ------ )  K 9 2  A -  , ; P -  ,  = m  g; m -  , ; g -    (9,8 / 2); H -      , ; H i -   , ; l -     , ; K - ,   6. __________ ** -    C = P  t,  C -  , H c; P -      , H; t -     , .  14     䳿          --------------------------------------------------------------- |  |   |  |   | |  |  䳿 |  |  䳿 | | | ,  | | ,  | |----------+-------------------+----------+-------------------| | 13 | 10 | 22 - 23 | 24 | |----------+-------------------+----------+-------------------| | 14 | 12 | 24 | 26 | |----------+-------------------+----------+-------------------| | 15 | 14 | 25 | 28 | |----------+-------------------+----------+-------------------| | 16 - 17 | 16 | 16 - 27 | 30 | |----------+-------------------+----------+-------------------| | 18 | 18 | 28 | 32 | |----------+-------------------+----------+-------------------| | 19 - 20 | 20 | 29 - 30 | 34 | |----------+-------------------+----------+-------------------| | 21 | 22 | 31 | 36 | ---------------------------------------------------------------  15         :  8-       115 .     112 . г : 115 - 112 = 3 ()      3      2 .  ,       1:2,       䳿        䳿 .